Besides the hypersensitivity itch produces in horses, culicoides causes many other problems.
Culicoides in Horses - Vesicular Stomatitis.
Culicoides gnats also support vesicular stomatitis virus in livestock - pig, cattle, sheep, horses, and even in humans (fever, muscle pain).
Signs: mouth swelling/abscess, inability to close mouth, painful oral ulcers, tongue/swallowing dysfunction.
Lesions similar to foot and mouth disease.
Click Here to See: Vesicular Stomatitis in Horses on the AAEP Site
Culicoides in the Horse - Species
Are over 1400 species of culicoides in the world (not seen in Iceland, New Zealand or Hawaii)
Culicoides in the Horse - Blue Tongue - cattle, goat, sheep. Up to 90% mortality in sheep, severe airway infection by this virus - die by suffocate. Also swollen, painful gums, lips.
Click Here to See: Overview of Bluetongue from Merck Veterinary Manual
Culicoides in Horses - African Horse Sickness.
Cullicodes transmits African Horse sickness to horses.
1. Click Here Merck Manual: 90% mortality (death), suffocate to death, no treatment
2. Outbreak in Thailand in March 2020 - Click Here for Article
3. Research at Texas AM on culicoides in horses - Click Here for Article
a. Affects horses, mules, donkeys, and zebras.
b. 90% of horses die of it. Zebras rarely show clinical signs even if infected.
c. Culicoides species in Texas could transmit African Horse Sickness.
d. No set vaccines due to genetic variants - can make vaccines once in an area.
Culicoides in Horse - Onchocerca
Culicoides gnats are vectors for onchocerca - which also set off terrible itching problems in horses, infects horse’s eyes.
Click Here for Article on Onchorcerca Cervicalis