Besides the hypersensitivity itch produces in horses, culicoides causes many other problems.
Vesicular stomatitis to horses via culicoides.
Culicoides gnats also support vesicular stomatitis virus in livestock - pig, cattle, sheep, horses, and even in humans (fever, muscle pain).
Signs: mouth swelling/abscess, inability to close mouth, painful oral ulcers, tongue/swallowing dysfunction.
Lesions similar to foot and mouth disease.
Click Here to See: Vesicular Stomatitis in Horses on the AAEP Site
Culicoides in Horses - in world
Are over 1400 species of culicoides in the world (not seen in Iceland, New Zealand or Hawaii)
Culicoides transmits blue tongue disease to animals - cattle, goat, sheep. Up to 90% mortality in sheep, severe airway infection by this virus - die by suffocate. Also swollen, painful gums, lips.
Click Here to See: Overview of Bluetongue from Merck Veterinary Manual
Culicoides in African Horse Sickness.
Cullicodes transmits African Horse sickness to horses.
1. Click Here Merck Manual: 90% mortality (death), suffocate to death, no treatment
2. Outbreak in Thailand in March 2020 - Click Here for Article
Culicoides in horse onchocerca
Culicoides gnats are vectors for onchocerca - which also set off terrible itching problems in horses, infects horse’s eyes.
Click Here for Article on Onchorcerca Cervicalis